INTRODUCTION TO PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS
Where to Place Parenthetical Citations
Schemata are accepted as interlocking mental structures representing readers’ knowledge (Perkins, 1983; Zaher, 1987; Anderson & Pearson, 1988; Cook, 1997; Alderson, 2000; Brown, 2001; & Harmer, 2001) of ordinary events (Nassaji, 2002).
Nassaji (2002) discusses one of the unexpected findings of schema-based studies that would account for working memory.
In 1932, Bartlett introduced Schema Theory.
Cite source with 1 or 2 authors
First and subsequent citations
Fisher (1999) administered a questionnaire . . . Fisher’s results indicated . . .
[new paragraph] The questionnaire administered by Fisher (1999) was used by . . .
A source with 1 or 2 authors
(Adkins & Singh, 2001)
Adkins and Singh (2001)
Authors with same surname
D. Baldwin (2001) and M. L. Baldwin (1999)
Cite source with three or more authors
A source with three to five authors
First citation: (Baldwin, Bevan, & Beshalke, 2000)
Subsequent citation: (Baldwin et al., 2000)
A source with six or more authors
6 authors: (Utley et al., 2001)
7 authors: (Yawn et al., 2001)
[Note: In the reference list, use of et al. begins with 7-author references.]
Sources with two or more six-author groups with same first surname
(Baldwin, Utley et al., 2001)
(Baldwin, Bevan et al., 2000)
Cite source with no author
A source with no author
("Writing Strategies", 2001)
(Second Language Acquisition, 2001)
An edited work with no author
Cite multiple sources in one reference
Two or more works in parentheses
Several researchers (Greenberg, Domitrovich, & Bumbarger, 2000; Roy, 1995; Yawn et al., 2000) . . .
The need for more effective prevention of mental illness in children has been the focus of many reports (e.g. National Institute of Mental Health, 1998; U.S. Public Health Service, 2000; Weist, 2001).
Use see also after major work
(Roy, 1995; see also Embar-Seddon, 2000; Greenberg, 2001)
by reporting or
by direct quotation.
According to Peters (1983) evidence from first language acquisition indicates that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks.
Evidence from first language acquisition indicating that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks was given by Peters (1983).
Evidence from first language acquisition (Peters, 1983) indicates that lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks.
Lexical phrases are learnt first as unanalysed lexical chunks (Peters, 1983).
Ways of presenting quotations
When you quote another author's words exactly. For example:
Hillocks (1982) similarly reviews dozens of research findings and states “the available research suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally ineffective" (p. 267).
Three dots - ellipsis (...)
When you omit some of the author’s original words that are not relevant to your writing, use three dots (...) to indicate where you have omitted words.
Carrell found that native ... readers used context and transparency to improve their comprehension. However, these subjects, contrary to prediction, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than they recalled ... [the familiar]. None of the background knowledge factors influenced the high-ntermediate L2 readers. For the advanced group of L2 readers only the familiarity factor influenced reading comprehension. They, like the L1 readers, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than the more familiar ... [one]. (Roller and Matambo, 1992, p.130).
If you need to insert material (additions or explanations) into a quotation, use brackets, ([...]).
Carrell found that native ... readers used context and transparency to improve their comprehension. However, these subjects, contrary to prediction, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than they recalled ... [the familiar]. None of the background knowledge factors influenced the high-intermediate L2 readers. For the advanced group of L2 readers only the familiarity factor influenced reading comprehension. They, like the L1 readers, recalled the unfamiliar ... [text] better than the more familiar ... [one]. (Roller and Matambo, 1992, p.130).
Single quotation marks (‘...’)
If the material quoted already contains a quotation, use single quotation marks for the original quotation (‘...’).
Schemata are thought to be flexible notions and Atkinson (1999: 639-640) states that “schemas and networks of connections, including but not limited to ‘culture in the head’ ... interact with worldly phenomena, including, but not limited to ‘culture in the world’”.
Introduce lengthy quotations with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument. If your quotation is longer than four lines (in the APA system, 40 words or more), do not place it in quotation marks. Instead, set it off as a block quotation.
The term working memory is now generally preferred to short-term memory. Working memory refers to the information that is activated, or given mental stimulation, for immediate storage and processing. Working memory involves the active use of cognitive processes such as recognising and storing word information, using syntactic information, connecting pronoun references, building overall text structure, integrating and restructuring information, assessing inferences and adapting reader goals. (Grabe & Stoller, 2002, p. 18)
If you have not actually read the work you are referring to, you should give the reference for the secondary source - what you have read. In the text, you should then use the following method:
According to Jones (as cited in Smith, 1982, p. 276), the ....