PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1308 - 951X

Volume 12 Issue 1 (March 2021)

Original articles

Cross-linguistic transfer of L1 and L2 in learning L3: French word order

Mehrnnoosh Hajijalili, Amir Sabzevar, Ehsan Namaziandost

pp. 1 - 9


The present study was conducted to explore the cross-linguistic transfer of L1 and L2 in learning French word order as L3. In order to conduct the present study, 30 Iranian students studying French as their L3 in Iran language institute were selected. The participants were all native speakers of Persian, and they had previously learned English as their L2. A grammaticality judgement/correction task (GJCT) was administered to the learners studying at three elementary classes of this institute. This task was intended to assess the participants’ word order recognition in sentence order and adjective-noun patterns. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 statistical software. The findings revealed that Iranian French language learners were more affected by the word order of their L2 (English) rather than their L1 (Persian). These results confirm L2 Status Factor Model proposed by Hammarberg (2001). Based on this model, since an L3 structures are learned in the same way as an L2 structure (explicitly), and L1 is learned rather implicitly, transfer will be observed among the two languages that are learned and stored in same way.

Keywords: Cross-Linguistic Transfer, English, French, L2 Status Factor Model, Persian, Word Order

Analysis the Impact of Emotional Intelligence on University Teachers’ Academic Performance in Bangladesh: An Empirical Evaluation

Tanmay Biswas , Moudud-Ul-Huq , Md. Shahed Mahmud , Md. Rostam Ali , Brishti Chakraborty

pp. 10 - 23


The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of the factors affecting emotional intelligence on the teachers’ academic performance in Bangladesh and data were collected adopting stratified sampling technique through a structured questionnaire from public and private university teachers in Bangladesh. The partial least square method based on structural equation model (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze data. This study reveals that there is a significant effect of emotional self-regulation (t=3.261, β=0.205, p<0.05), self-motivation (t=3.382, β=0.254, p<0.05), social skill (t=2.618, β=0.171, p<0.05) on teachers’ academic performance in Bangladesh. On the other hand, the insignificant relationship exists of emotional self-awareness (t=1.269, β=0.099, p>0.05) and emotional empathy (t=1.041, β=0.068, p>0.05) on teachers’ academic performance. Especially, self-motivation has a strong positive impact (β =0.254) on teachers’ academic performance but emotional empathy (β = 0.068) has most insignificant impact on teachers’ academic performance. The study has several implications for education researchers, government of Bangladesh (Ministry of Education, University Grants Commission), education policy makers, university teachers, education service providers (University) and IQAC to identify and evaluate the factors affecting emotional intelligence on teachers’ academic performance for accelerating teaching learning pedagogy as well as effectiveness in order to ensure quality education.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence (EI), Academic performance, University teachers’, Teaching-learning outcome, Bangladesh

The Impact of Differentiated Instructions on the Motivation of Gifted Student: A Study about Age and Gender Differences

Mohd Fadzil bin Kamarudina, Mohd Hasrul bin Kamarulzamanb, Mohd Saifun Aznin bin Mohd Sharifb, Mior Muhamad Saiful Nizan Saalib, Muhammad Zaim Esratib

pp. 24 - 32


The purpose of this paper is to find the impact of differentiated instruction on the motivation of gifted students in Mathematics at Kolej PERMATApintar® Negara based on age and gender differences. 
The differentiated instruction method has been applied in teaching and learning system since the establishment of PERMATApintar National Gifted Center (PpNGC) around year 2011. A survey was conducted on 235 gifted students aged 11 to 17 years old. It consists of 13 questions that examine the level of satisfaction of students towards teaching and learning mathematics at Kolej PERMATApintar® Negara. There were four parts of learning profile that have been studied, namely teacher support, learning activities, sharing ideas and educational environment.  All of the data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software to measure student’s satisfaction according to age and gender. The result suggests that differentiated instruction method give a positive impact on the motivation of gifted student and male students to be more motivated than female students during mathematics class. Beside that there are significant differences between motivation of male and female students against several elements in learning profile of differentiated instruction method. In addition, the age of the student also has a positive relationship with some elements of the differentiated instruction method. Differentiated instruction is the pedagogical response to what the gifted students need in the classrooms. The elements of differentiated instruction provide great opportunity for gifted students to explore any areas of knowledge especially in mathematics based on their needs. The study summarizes some of the elements in the differentiated instruction method that influence the level of student's motivation in mathematics. Beside that some improvements can be made to all the activities during teaching and learning session in mathematics classes.

Keywords: Differentiated instruction, motivation, age, gender, gifted student

Burnout Experience of Secondary and Preparatory School Teachers in West Gojjam and Awi Zones in Amhara Regional State

Anteneh Wulolign Terfie, Solomon Adane Hailu, Solomon Kassie Alem

pp. 33 - 48


The purpose of the study was to assess Burnout experience of secondary and preparatory school teachers in West Gojjam and Awi Zones in Amhara regional state.  Participants of the study were selected by simple random sampling technique. The study employed cross-sectional survey design method to answer the proposed research objectives regarding burnout experience by secondary school and preparatory school teachers. The primary data collection tool for the study was questionnaire. The level of burnout was assessed using standardized questionnaire, and these standardized questionnaires were adopted from the original English version Maslch burnout inventory Human service Survey to assess the level of burnout. The descriptive statistics on the mean scores of the three dimensions of burnout indicated that teachers were experiencing high levels of burnout in all the three dimensions of burnout. The independent samples t-test result showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (male and female) in EE and PA burnout levels (t= 1.35, df = 286, p =.176 >.05) and (t= -1.007, df = 286, p =.315 >.05).

Keywords: Burnout, Experience, Secondary School, Preparatory School, Teachers

Teacher Preparation to Implement Inclusive Education in Ethiopia

Zelalem Temesgen

pp. 49 - 60


This study explored the experiences of education personnel about mentoring and preparing teachers for inclusive education in Ethiopia. An interpretive qualitative method is employed to find out the meanings of the mentoring experiences for the teacher trainees as well as the interpretations of these experiences for the researcher.  Judgmental sampling is adopted, in which education officials, experts and school supervisors involved as informants. Focus group discussion and semi-structured interview were used to get the data for the study. The data were analyzed thematically as per the questions of the study. Findings revealed shortage of teachers in SNE, absence of guideline of inclusive education, and lapses in teachers skills as main hindrances to inclusion of children with disabilities into regular schools. It is concluded that while preparing SNE teachers for inclusive education is a responsibility on the part of each regional education bureaus, education personnel faced several challenges to adequately meet this demand.

Keywords: disability, inclusive education, misunderstanding, teacher preparation

Language-Specific Professional Development: A Comparison of For-profit and Non-profit International Schools

Clayton Wayne Lehman

pp. 61 - 76


The international school market is expanding, and the number of for-profit English-medium international schools is rising.  Fueling the increase in international schools is the growing number of students seeking to enroll, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs).  Ensuring ELLs have access to the curriculum requires international school staff to be trained to work with ELLs.  The purpose of this study was to explore differences in professional development specific to working with ELLs between international schools in East Asia that are for-profit and schools that are non-profit. Additional areas examined include types of professional development, teacher efficacy, and teacher retention.  This quantitative cross-sectional survey-based study had 548 participants, 157 of whom were administrators, and 391 were teachers.  The main findings of the study revealed there are significant differences in the availability of language-specific professional development and retention rates of teachers between for-profit and non-profit international schools in East Asia.

Keywords: professional development; international schools; teacher retention; for-profit schools; ELLs

Vietnamese In-service Teachers’ Perspectives towards Micro-teaching Component of a Professional Development Program

Ly Ngoc Luu

pp. 77 - 88


Since its inception, micro-teaching has been widely used as an important component of pre-service teacher training programs. It provides prospective teachers with valuable opportunities to develop effective teaching strategies and involves them in ‘real’ classroom experiences. However, little attention is paid to investigating the implication of micro-teaching in training programs for in-service teachers. Therefore, this study attempted to investigate the attitudes of in-service teachers in a local area in Vietnam regarding the micro-teaching component of a four-week training program.  This program consists of four phases: Face-to-face training, Online learning, Micro-teaching, and a Teaching Field trip. The data was collected from 103 in-service teachers who participated in the course. A questionnaire with close-ended and open-ended questions yielding both quantitative and qualitative date was used for data collection. The results indicated an overall positive attitude towards micro-teaching experiences besides some worth-addressing concerns. The study then proposed some recommendations for an improved version of the training program.

Keywords: micro-teaching, in-service teachers, professional development