PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1308 - 951X

Volume 11 Issue 1 (March 2020)

Original articles

Freedom to choose within limits: Teacher Autonomy from the Perspectives of Basic School Teachers in the Central Region of Ghana

Stephen Kwakye Apau & Dandy George Dampson

pp. 1 - 17


The study examined the level of autonomy among basic school teachers in the Central Region of Ghana as well as the effect of teacher demographic characteristics (gender, age and teaching experience) on the level of teacher autonomy. The study used the explanatory sequential (Quan-qual) design where different but complementary data were collected. Through the systematic sampling technique, a total of 315 basic school teachers were involved in the quantitative phase whilst 12 teachers (who were previously surveyed at the quantitative phase) were purposely sampled for the qualitative phase of the study. A continuous validated Likert-scale questionnaire comprising 18 items was adapted from Pearson and Hall (1993) and used for the quantitative phase. Using findings from the quantitative phase as basis, a semi-structured interview guide was designed to collect data to further elaborate the study’s key findings. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data whilst the interview was analysed thematically. The study revealed that teachers in the Central Region of Ghana hold positive perceptions about their autonomy with the level of autonomy being moderate. Positively, the study revealed that teacher autonomy is affected by gender whilst age and teaching experience affects their level of autonomy negatively. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the Ghana Education Service (GES) and school heads should periodically organize programmes that target conscientising the basic school teachers about the extent of autonomy that they have in the process of implementing the curriculum. With regard to the demographic characteristics of the teachers, school activities should be planned in a manner that encourage full exercise of autonomy irrespective of one’s gender, age or teaching experience.

Keywords: Autonomy, Curriculum, teaching experience

A Phenomenological Study on the Lived Experiences of Student Teachers during their School Internship

Najmuddeen P & Dr Santhosh Areekkuzhıyıl

pp. 18 - 32


School internship is termed as one of the most important parts of any teacher education programme as this is the phase when the student teachers apply the knowledge and skills they had acquired from the college or institute of teacher education for the first time in real life situations. The study focuses on the real-life experiences of the secondary level student teachers from different institutes of teacher education in the Kerala state of India. Ten student teachers from three different institutes of teacher education were interviewed during their school internship. The interview focused on the meanings they, as student teachers attributed to the experience of a school internship. The interview data were analysed with the help of qualitative data analysis techniques. The major themes emerged after the analysis of data analysis were: (i) the first days of the internship were not pleasant for the student teachers (ii) not all the major roles of the regular teachers are assigned to the student teachers during internship (iii) social constructivist methods don’t work in the real classrooms (iv) visits by the supervisor teachers were not frequent enough (v) mentor teachers are helpful, cooperative and friendly (vi) student teachers felt like teachers and got recognized as teachers during school internship (vii) ICT facilities in the schools are not enough and accessible (viii) school internship did not affect daily routine.

Keywords: School Internship, Lived experiences, Student Teachers

Teaching practice in education colleges in Myanmar: The impediments to pre-service teachers’ practicum

Winthinzar Kyaw

pp. 33 - 55


This study investigated into the nature of teaching practice in Education Colleges in Myanmar to find out the obstacles of the pre-service teachers during their practicum. The mixed method research design was used. All the second-year Diploma in Teacher Education pre-service teachers in three Education Colleges (N= 573) in (2018-2019) Academic Year were surveyed, and (15) of them involved in the semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the impediments were concerned with students, classroom management, host school, pre-service teachers, instruction and education college. The most challenging obstacles were found in the domain of education college.

Keywords: pre-service teachers; practicum; teacher education; supervision

Evaluation of Pre-Service Education Programme in Terms of Educational Assessment

Frank Quansah & Vera Rosemary Ankoma-Sey

pp. 56 - 69


This study evaluated the training of pre-service teachers in the various tertiary institutions in Ghana to find out whether professionally trained teachers are given adequate training in assessment. The methodology employed for this study was a qualitative case study. The study focused on two universities and the colleges of education in Ghana. Unstructured interviews were also conducted using an interview guide. The purposive sampling procedure was used to sample three teaching practice supervisors who are college professors, five preservice teachers, and two teaching practice coordinators. A total of ten respondents were interviewed. Through purposive sampling technique, five different sets of documents were sampled and critically analysed. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the training of pre-service teachers in tertiary institutions in Ghana placed less emphasis on how to assess students. The major emphasis of the training of pre-service teachers was on lesson planning, delivery, and demonstration of pedagogical skills with the aim of imparting knowledge. Based on the findings, it was commended that the management of educational institutions should factor the educational assessment a core element in the training of pre-service teachers.

Keywords: Assessment, training, pre-service teachers, teacher development, quality teaching

Disseminating Value in the Curriculum Transaction of Teacher Education in North East India

Ananta Kumar Jena & Safika Choudhury

pp. 70 - 86


Value enshrined in the Indian constitution introduced in the curriculum implies freedom from exploitation and ensuring to provide opportunities for individuals’ development, irrespective of the background, gender, cultural or socio-economic identity and status. Each individual should be free and be able to avail equal opportunities to develop his/her individuality fully according to one’s interests, attitudes, and capacities. Curriculum of teacher education programme in India has been upgraded much. Still it needs modifications and it does not fully address the basic needs and value of contemporary Indian schools and society. Thematic analysis strategies used to describe the reality of value disseminated by the teachers during the curriculum transaction. This is an unstructured interview where data were collected, and analyzed through thematic approaches to satisfy credibility, transferability, dependability, conformability, and trustworthiness. The study claimed that the teachers are disseminating the values in their classroom and most of the teachers are disseminating the value those are satisfactory and per day they are providing few minutes the value related to environment, social conscience, and civil senses.

Keywords: curriculum transaction; dissemination of value; northeast India; teacher education; thematic approaches; transferability

Enhancing EFL Learners’ Speaking Accuracy and Fluency Through Using Pictorial Input

Ehsan Namaziandost

pp. 87 - 100


Second language acquisition (SLA) has been affected by many internal as well as external factors. Among them, the language input that learners receive in SLA is one of the external factors which plays a fundamental role. Considering the vital role of input, this study examined the effect of pictorial input on Iranian elementary EFL learners’ speaking accuracy and fluency. To do this study, 54 Iranian elementary EFL learners were selected among 80 students at a private English Language Institute. Then, the selected participants were divided into two equal groups; experimental group and control group. After that, both groups were pretested by a speaking pre-test. Then, both groups received the treatment. The experimental group was taught through using the pre-speaking strategies; the researcher provided the students with pictorial inputs. On the other hand, the students of the control group were taught through traditional speaking activities including repetition and over-learning. The treatment took 15 sessions of 50 minutes each under the guidance of the supervisor. In the first session, the participants were homogenized. In the second session, the students were pretested. During 11 sessions, the students were taught by using pictorial input, and in the last session the two groups took the speaking post-test. After the treatment, both experimental groups took the post-test of speaking. The results of paired t-test and MANOVA revealed that the experimental group had better performance on their accuracy and fluency post-test compared to their pre-test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the performances of the experimental and control group on the accuracy and fluency post-test. Finally, implications arising from the findings and suggestions for further research were explained.

Keywords: Accuracy, Fluency, Speaking skill, Pictorial input