PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1308 - 951X

Volume 11 Issue 2 (June 2020)

Original articles

Conflict Resolution in Senior High Schools in Ghana

Victoria Nyarkoah Sam

pp. 1 - 17


Conflict resolution requires an understanding of best resolution practices which should be used to address them when they arise. The study sought to investigate into the methods adopted by senior high schools for resolving conflicts, find out the nature of outcomes of methods used and finally to develop and propose new conflict resolution model for Senior High Schools in Ghana. The study employs the use of a mixed approach based on the two-phase sequential exploratory design strategy. The qualitative phase employs the use of in-depth interviews with selected Head teachers. The quantitative phase employed the use of a validated questionnaire to collect data. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 800 participants consisting of Head teachers, teachers and students. Several analytical techniques including the Correspondence analysis, Chi square analysis, Cramer’s V test and the Spearman’s correlation were used to address objectives of the study. The findings of the study revealed that conflicts were mostly resolved by the disciplinary committees which mostly employed the use of punishments and suspension of students. There was a significant relationship between the method used in conflict resolution and the nature of outcome. Finally, the research also found that delay in conflict resolution; biasness and leakages of issues to public could undermine the resolution of conflicts in schools. The research recommended that Colleges of Education should introduce components in conflict resolution to equip them with the requisite knowledge and skill.

Keywords: Senior High School, School Leadership, Disciplinary Committee, Conflict Resolution

The Practice of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teacher Educators in Education Colleges in Myanmar

Winthinzar Kyaw

pp. 18 - 34



The purpose of this study was to investigate the practice of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of teacher educators (N=108) in three Education Colleges in Myanmar. A quantitative survey research design focusing on a set of questionnaires was used. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the TPACK-based practices of teacher educators in terms of their Education College, experience, degree, rank, department and gender. However, significant differences were unearthed in their practices of technological knowledge according to their experience and degree. Besides, by their ranks, significant differences were found in the practice of technological and content knowledge.

Keywords: teacher educators, technological pedagogical content knowledge, education colleges

Teacher Interaction and Empathy: An Investigation among Effective English Language Teachers

Zahra Zohoorian, Mitra Zeraatpishe

pp. 35 - 48


Teachers play a fundamental role in educational settings as well as in every academic context. Thus, educational systems have to rely on evaluating the teachers for various traits, features, and personality characteristics. Among the different qualities, teacher interaction and empathy are two of the vital concepts well-accepted by language teaching scholars. However, novice teachers may need guidance. It is advisable to rely on the experiences and traits of effective teachers when administrators and policy makers aim to hold teacher training courses or in-service training sessions. Accordingly, through relying on mega planning theory and employing a mixed method, the researcher concluded the patterns of empathy and interaction among effective English language teachers to provide feedback to English program administers and teachers mainly. The findings of the qualitative phase of the study also shed light on what skills effective teachers had and what beliefs they held concerning empathy and interaction in classroom.

Keywords: Teacher Interaction; Teacher Empathy; Effective Teachers; Teacher Education

Meta-cognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies of Iranian Graduate Students across Different Disciplines

Mahtab Asadi

pp. 49 - 60


The current study aimed to investigate meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies among Iranian graduate students across different disciplines and the possible differences in meta-cognitive awareness and using categories of meta-cognitive strategies as well as the reasons of high meta-cognitive awareness of some students. This study conducted a mixed method approach. For the quantitative part, 80 graduate students filled out Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) by Mokhtari and Sheorey (2002) and for the qualitative part, 30 graduate students took part in semi- structured interviews. The results of this study indicated that all participants were generally highly aware of meta-cognitive reading strategies. One- Way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference in using categories of meta-cognitive reading strategies. Interview findings also demonstrated that highly meta-cognitive aware students had a background in learning reading strategies. The SORS questionnaire could be modified by adding two more strategies of “Reviewing” and “Making the English word resemble a word in the mother tongue” disclosed through the interview analyses.

Keywords: Meta-cognition, Meta-cognitive reading strategies, Global reading strategies, Problem-solving reading strategies, Support reading strategies

Students’ Responsiveness to Peer-Led Team Learning and Its Contributing Factors in Bahr Dar and Gondar Universities

Ayetenew Abie

pp. 61 - 77


This manuscript intended to investigate students' responsiveness to Peer Led Team Learning(PLTL) pedagogical initiative and its contributing factors in HEIs. The study employed mixed method  concurrent parallel design. 163 participants  fill in the questionnaire. Focus group discussion was done with PLTL group leaders. Interviews and field observation were also used for data collection. One sample t-test findings (mean of means 3.3742, mean difference -0.6258, P<.001)proved  all predictors and the DV illustrated statistically significant mean difference below the set test value(4.00)imply  the perceived practice status of variables were below expectation. ANOVA test did not demonstrate  significant difference of  student responsiveness to PLTL among departments. All involved predictor variables and the DV demonstrated statistically significant relationship or common variance(r>0.20)between predictors or between predictor and the DV. Independent sample t-test findings confirmed that there were no significant PLTL difference between male and female students; Bahrdar and Gondar universities; II and III year students. Stepwise regression demonstrated that 56.2 %  students' responsiveness to PLTL was explained by students' attitude, perception, modular instruction, PLTL outcomes and communal culture jointly by the model F(4,157)=52.517, P<.001. The univariate analysis of variance proved the interaction effect of covariates by university1and 2 on DV became significant and strong without significant difference of effect between the two universities. The qualitative data proved: CL/PLTL principles and pre, during and post instruction student roles are essential for successful implementation and goal achievement although their perceived practice statuses are below expectation. By implication, success on  change initiative rely on awareness, attitude,  practice and outcome, of the change agents or beneficiaries together with their understanding and practice of appropriate change management strategies, work culture and instructional model for achieving educational change initiatives like PLTL.

Keywords: organizational culture, Cooperative learning, peer led team learning, Bahr Dar university, Gondar university